Table of content:
- Concrete as it is
- Why is it necessary to add reinforcement materials to concrete?
- Fiber reinforced concrete
- Reinforcing mesh
- Rebar reinforcement
Concrete is a strong material widely used in construction. But even this material requires fiber reinforcement. Concrete reinforcement which was used in a previous centuries was rebar reinforcement. Nowadays specialists recommend to use concrete reinforcement fiber (basalt fibre, steel fibre, pp fibre, glass fibre, and other cement fibres). For those cases that require rebar we want to inform that basalt rebars are new generation discrete reinforcement materials. For the best result it is definitely better to use fibers in concrete and rebar at the same time.
Concrete as it is
Can you imagine a city or even a village in a developed country where people would not use concrete? We guess that the reply is negative. Long time ago concrete became the most widely used man-made material in the world.
Nowadays, concrete is used for almost all types of construction purposes. Constructors use concrete for building not only houses, but also railroads and bridges to waterways. The use of concrete can be found everywhere and is considered as the backbone of all construction projects. It is not weird that our modern world is called “Concrete jungles”
Even though concrete has been used for ages, nowadays concrete is not the same as it was before. Modern concrete is more than simply a mixture of cement, water, and aggregates; modern concrete contains more and more often mineral components, chemical admixtures, fibres, etc.
Of course, the utility market will stay the major market of concrete but niche markets implying the use of smart concretes is rapidly developing. The development of these concretes results from the emergence of a new science of concrete, a new science of admixtures and the use of sophisticated scientific apparatus to observe the concrete microstructure and even nanostructure. Today construction world contains a great number of concrete types: normal strength concrete, plain or ordinary concrete, prestressed concrete, precast concrete, light – weight concrete, high-density concrete, air-entrained concrete, ready mix concrete, Normal Strength Concrete, high-strength concrete, high- performance concrete, self – consolidated concrete, shotcrete concrete, vacuum concrete, pumped concrete, stamped concrete, etc.
Why is it necessary to add reinforcement materials to concrete?
Concrete of itself is a pretty fragile material. Concrete has rather good compressive strength, but the tensile strength is its main weakness. And that is why it should be reinforced. How to reinforce it – you can choose yourself.
What we recommend is to use basalt chopped fiber and basalt rebar.
Fiber reinforced concrete
Fiber reinforcement is introduced not only to increase concrete tensile capacity but also to increase water resistance, frost resistance, fire resistance, and sound absorption of concrete and precast structures.
Concrete attains its designed compressive strength in 28-days after casting. But adding basalt reinforcement fiber will help to increase the early strength gain by 30 %. That fact gives you a possibility to increase the capacity of the enterprise. Full strength development requires proper ambient temperature controlled over a month time. But as you understand fiber will help you to overcome this another disadvantage of concrete.
Adding basalt chopped fiber will also eliminate micro crack formation. Shrinkage is a main cause of cracking. As concrete hardens and dries it shrinks. This is due to the evaporation of excess mixing water. This shrinkage causes forces in the concrete which literally pull the slab apart. Add only 1 kg of basalt chopped fiber per 1 cubic meter and you will solve this problem. In order to increase the tensile strength of concrete you have to add 3-4 kg per 1 cubic meter. Evenly mixed fiber will guarantee three dimensional reinforcement of concrete, and you will have no need to search for the answer how to repair concrete cracks.
Fragility of concrete causes one more problem – corners and sides chopping off at impact. In this case basalt fiber is also the material which will solve the problem.
In some cases designers propose to reinforce the concrete structures with steel mesh. One of the most widely used applications for steel mesh is floor, but not many of you can imagine that replacement of commonly used steel mesh by basalt reinforcing fiber will give you up to 30% of economical effect. Using of steel mesh also does not guarantee that the surface of concrete will have no cracks, on the contrary of reinforcing fiber.
A typical way to reinforce concrete is to use rebar. Steel rebar is a known and widely used product for the reinforcement purpose. Rebar works great for most reinforcement situations. It’s available, well-tested, and understood. But it does have a few disadvantages, one of the major one being that it is a passive reinforcement. Steel lengthens with stress, so rebar can’t start working to help resist tension until it’s had a chance to stretch out. People all over the world know about steel rebar and its main purpose, but those who want to be in tune with times search for some innovative solutions.
We are welcome to introduce a basalt composite reinforcement bar. At the time being our company proposes basalt rebar of following diameters: 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, 14 mm for specific applications. The rebar we propose (ANPB) is 4 times lighter than steel rebar, 3 times stronger, resistant to corrosion, so does not need additional concrete protective layer, has the same expansion coefficient as concrete, so it really reinforce concrete and does not ruin at temperature changes, as steel rebar does. Use of basalt rebar will significantly exceed the life period of the structure.
Pay attention that for roads, bridges, overpasses, foundations, non load bearing walls, protective structures basalt rebar is an indispensable product. In the construction sphere some other types of composite rebar are available: fiberglass rebar, aramid fiber rebar, carbon fiber rebar. If you compare the technical characteristics of these products and price, other words if you consider all pros and cons you will see that basalt fiber reinforced bars have advantages.
Summarizing lets name a few roles played by reinforcement:
- It takes the tensile stresses, as concrete is not good in tension with minimum tensile strength (flexural stress)
- It gives ductility to the structure
- It prevents the catastrophic failure of the structure
- Overall it gives the stability to the structure without which the structure would not have served the purpose for which it would be designed.
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