How to make reinforced concrete?
Table of content:
- Advantages of reinforced concrete
- Basalt fiber reinforced concrete
- How to make reinforced concrete
There are many ways to use concrete in building projects. It makes from water and cement and uses for building motorways, runways, military installations, blocks, beams, pavements, etc. The type of concrete without reinforcement calls “plain concrete”. In the the19th-century, the method of creating concrete was improved by adding to cement reinforcing materials. It helps to avoid some disadvantages of plain concrete such as the high risk of cracking, low tensile strength, non-ductile and other. The main problem of plain concrete is that it’s about 10 times weaker in tension than in compression. It can’t be stretched or bend without reinforcing from inside because of risks of cracking or easily snapping. To avoid this, people began to use reinforcement in concrete.
What is reinforced concrete?
Reinforced concrete is a composite material that consists of basalt fiber (or other material) reinforcement usually in the form of bars, cement, and water. That technique used to increase the strength of the cement structure. This composite material is widely using in different urban applications. There are many ways to make it cheap and create all kinds of shapes that fit the conceived building project. Reinforced concrete is also fireproof and (relatively) waterproof. But it also depends on the materials used for reinforcing. For example, basalt fiber-based reinforcing concrete becomes extremely strong in compression. It also acquires corrosion resistance and resistance of weight piled on top. Due to these profits, reinforced concrete widely used in building houses and foundations.
Basalt fiber reinforced concrete
Basalt fiber reinforcing material stands out for its strength, which is much higher than other kinds of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Besides, its elastic modulus is similar to that of carbon fiber composites (which has a higher price) and also higher than that of other fibers. The raw material of basalt fiber producing from natural volcanic rock. Tech properties of this material providing high chemical and thermal stability and produce no harmful gas or waste residue in the fiber production process. It is a kind of eco-green material that meets the requirements of environmental protection.
Basalt fiber reinforcement makes the sandwich structure straight and thin that creates opportunities to use it in different ways and applications. It improves mechanical, thermal, chemical resistant properties and creates conditions, which is a very important point that guarantees a high-quality level.
According to some test of concrete tensile strength in bending, reinforced by basalt chopped fiber, manufactured by Technobasalt-Invest, we can conclude that:
- Reinforcement by 12-mm basalt fiber does not change the fragile nature of concrete cubes’ disintegration in bending and a 1-2% fiber content results in 1,19 – 1,23 times higher concrete tensile strength (axial and bending) of the B20 quality/class.
- Reinforcement by 24- and 50-mm basalt fiber with 1-3 % fiber content changes the nature of disintegration in bending to plastic. The ratio of the regular crack formation load to the breaking load is 0.75…0.85, which is the evidence of the fiber engagement into tension.
- And when reinforcing by 24- and 50-mm basalt fiber with 1-3% content, the tensile strength (axial and bending) of the B20 quality concrete increases to 1.79-2.24 times. The influence of concrete reinforcement by 24- and 50-mm fiber on the increase of its tensile strength under other equal conditions are equivalent.
Scientific Production Association “Budkonstruktsia” confirmed that the obtained test results allow us to recommend the implementation of basalt fiber for reinforcement of concrete and ferroconcrete structures.
How to make reinforced concrete?
Proportions of the composition of reinforced concrete look like:
- 67% reinforced materials
- 13% cement
- 20% water
In this instruction, the cement hydrate is the background, binding material which helps to put all components together. When you mix water with constituents of cement such as crystals of cement hydrate starts to expand and absorbing the sand with gravel tightly together. This slow formation of crystals by swelling provides the strength of concrete. Concrete needs hours to solidify and months to become extremely hard. During the next 5 years, it continues to harden and strengthen. In the case of reinforcing, concrete becomes the matrix while bars or wires provide reinforcement.
According to the tech characteristics of concrete reinforcement, we can conclude that using this composite material is a more profitable and long term than plain concrete.
The optimum material for concrete reinforcing is basalt fiber. It has many advantages such as straight, water-, fire- and corrosion resistance, environmental, and human health safety. Moreover, it is cheaper than carbon fiber, more reliable than fiberglass, and more flexible than steel fiber. You can make different designs and shapes without missing quality. So it will be the best choice for your building projects.